What are Players Pool Cues

Architectural stability, endurance, performance, and artistic design are some of the primary recommended features of the players pool cues. The construction of the forearm, the butt and the shaft considers the Pro-tapering as the main criterion. The diameter reduces gradually from the top to the bottom and decreases the deflection rate while the accuracy and fore increase proportionately.

Players’ Cue Shaft

The pro-taper cue enhances the cue elevation through the aiming line until the cue-ball comes into contact with the target-ball. The angle of swerve in the cue-ball can cause the impact line on the object-ball to throw at a specific angle whose movement will be accurately according to the player’s expectations. It is the result of low deflection and zero squirts. Most of the HXT-shafts are made from the American hardwood maple. The other popular ones are the ash-wood, Canadian maple and the others with grade A, B or grade AAA.

Careful examination of the shaft will show the number of triangular sections which make the diameter. The manufacturing process of the shaft enhances the mass, and density factors of the pro-taper shaft to perfection. The density and shape of the grains are the other parameters which enhance the quality of the shaft. See Pool Cue Guide for more great info on the best cues


Grade-A wood has straight grains with slight wiggles. The number of rings per inch of the radius varies from 6 to 12. Such shafts are stated to be made for the players’ pool cues.


OB+ is another class of pool cue shafts with cross grains. The shaft has stiffness factor which is far higher than the straight grain shaft. Such a shaft is recommended for the player pool cue.

Core Shaft

Core is the combination of maple-wood/ash-wood and carbon fiber at the core. This technology is being used by many of the leading cue manufacturers to increase the tensile strength and the flexibility of the shaft.

The customized player cues with metallic core shaft at the joints also increase the stability with and enhance the power of the stroke. The shaft also has a better feel of the shot which gets transmitted from the tip through the shaft onto the hands at the top gripping position.

The feel/feedback from the tip can tell a player about the stroke efficiency and the impact on the cue-ball. The combination of carbon core, wood surface, and the metallic joints can be found in the leading players’ pool cues available in the market today.

Players’ cue Ferrule

Carbon-Fiber Ferrule

The core of the ferrule is generally made from high quality carbon fiber for the best radial consistency. You can experience the feel of the shot due to the impact with the tip. The shocks from the tip get absorbed by the ferrule completely to enhance its lifespan and keep the shape intact without wearing out. The carbon fiber layer is also responsible for reducing the deflection rate of the cue-ball and keeping it in line with the shot. The squirt angle is reduced to almost zero.

Screw-In Ferrule

These are the replaceable ferrules made from high grade engineering plastic or the other synthetic materials. They have inbuilt threads which attach to the bottom end of the shaft and the top end of the cue tip.

Brass Ferrule

Light weight brass ferrules generally have the external coating of wood, plastic, or other compatible materials. Their taper is extremely stiff and they have the highest impact on the players’ cue tips.

Players’ Cue Tip

The efficient tip of the players’ cue is made from the cowhide or pig-skin with the most optimum density, depending on the tip diameter. Many of the OEMs make up the shape with a dime or a nickel. Hard tips are mostly recommended for the players’ cues due to their durability and reduced miscues. It can also increase the speed of the cue-ball and customize the spin depending on the position at which the tip strikes the cue-ball.

Speed and Spin Ratio

Professional players will know that the spin is not always bad for the stroke. In fact, most of them which aim to put the object ball into its target may have the finest elements of the spin onto the cue-ball. What matter are the angle between the Cue-ball and the object-ball, the net distance, and the target distance and the angle with the object ball.

The combined effect of the force from the shaft, ferrule, and the tip (also the joints if any) on the cue-ball will determine the distance and the angular momentum while it hits the object ball. The angle of impact from the cue-ball determines how the object ball reaches the target. For the hard tip it is better to find the players’ cue with the leather tip. For the soft tip you can opt for synthetic fiber. But the main problem with such tip is the wear-out. You may need to replace the tip frequently.

Players’ Cue Joints

Regardless of the pool cue material, the joints made of brass, steel, aluminum or the other alloy are stated to be the best types for players’ pool cue. Two or three piece cues with threaded joints make up the flawless connectivity between the shaft and the ferrule, ferrule and the tip, and the bumper and the shaft. The number of threads varies between the various brands of the players’ pool cues. The net effect of the joints depends on the length of the cue, weight, average diameter, tapering type and the materials used for making the cue parts.

Players’ Cue Rings

Most of the efficient players’ cues with multiple joints use metallic or non-metallic rings in the joints. They can enhance the shock absorbing capacity of the cue joints and also the aesthetic appearance. For the wood and fiberglass cues, it is better to opt for metallic or ivory rings. For the graphite cues, the rings can be made of synthetic fiber for better shock absorption and extended durability.

Players’ Cue Brands

The high end players’ cue brands in the market can fulfill all the design, construction and functional parameters we have listed above.


tree removal calgary

How to find a good Tree Surgeon

Your search for a good tree surgeon in your region starts with licensed companies who can cover the liability insurance. A licensed arborist can handle all the legal issues related to the forest preservation law and environmental issues. Insurance can take care of compensation for property damages in your home and the neighborhood.

Tree Surgeon Licensing – State Laws

The licensing law and procedure may vary in different states. For example, the Tree removal and Tree Care Operators Licensing Act are prevalent in New Jersey State. It was first implemented in 2010, followed by the Tree-Expert and Tree-Care-Operators Licensing-Law in 2017. These two laws consider the safety of customers and the residents staying around the vicinity of the trees being subject to surgery.

Tree Surgeon Insurance- Risk Management

Tree surgery involves risks of personal injury and property damages. In spite of taking personal safety measures, the probability of injury from falling branches, tools and equipment, and other debris can be high. Damages to your home and neighbor’s property (buildings and cars) should also be considered. The other coverage includes the public who may accidentally get injured (on the walking lanes, parking lots, etc).

You need to check whether the tree surgeon has renewed his insurance policy at present to cover all the probabilities. You can check on your contribution for the premium and ensure payment to stay covered.

Tree Surgeon – Certification

A certified tree surgeon will have to pass the state-sponsored examination for licensed tree expert. The International Society of Arboriculture certification is another mandatory requirement. They are also applicable for the employees working for the arborist.

These are the three primary criteria you should consider while searching for a professional tree surgeon in your region. We suggest you hire a local arborist within your town/city who is accessible and available 24X7. You can always contact him for post-surgical and emergency services without having to waste time waiting.

Tree Surgeon Search – Trusted Sources

The internet is a trusted source for arborist search. Local search engines can help you find the arborist with the license, insurance, and certification. Visit their website and read about services, infrastructure, experience, and expertise.

Customer reviews, testimonials, and ratings are important to assess and evaluate the quality and reliability of the arborist. Social media is a trusted platform where you can interact with the other customers and evaluate the tree surgeon. You can also talk to your neighbors and friends for taking references.

Tree Surgeon Selection – Interaction

One-to-One interaction with the arborist is the best-suggested method of selection. You need to select the most potential experts (2 or 3 companies) from your search.

  • Experience: An arborist with experience is a person whom you can trust for safety tree health preservation. He is a specialist in the visual examination, risk assessment, diagnosis, and control measures. He can prepare the groundwork in an organized manner before starting with the work. He plans his work and executes it according to a schedule. His first priority is always personal safety and property security. You can assess his experience when he inspects the trees in your garden that need surgery. You can also check the company’s license and startup dates to confirm their claim of experience.
  • Expertise: Tree surgery is more than cutting branches and thinning the crown. It involves preserving tree’s health and protecting it from diseases apart from reducing risks to people and property. Your first task is to determine the nature and scope of surgery needed for your trees. The next task is to evaluate the expertise of the tree surgeon in those aspects.
  • Equipment: An expert arborist will have a great inventory of tools and equipment for tree surgery, including the safety gears and gadgets for the The size and capacity of the equipment depending on the tree size, operation requirements and the safety aspects. It is very important to check the equipment age and efficiency to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the work.
  • Methods: There are many methods of accessing a tree while trimming, thinning and performing other surgical operations. The expert may use an elevated platform, climb up the tree, or use rope and ladder. He can determine the right method after inspection. Make sure he has the skill and experience.

Tree Surgeon- Specialization

Tree surgery methods vary, depending on the age, present health condition, infections and diseases, and the risks it poses. They also vary for the different tree species. Ask questions on aesthetics, enhancement, damage protection, weight balancing, size optimization, and protection of main branches.

The surgical methods for young and old trees will be different. For example, formative pruning is recommended for the relatively younger trees. Hedge trimming, crown thinning, and pollarding are some of the methods recommended for the relatively older trees.

The tree surgeon will recommend tree removal, only when it is beyond the scope of restoration through surgery. Then you can ask him about the assessed risks and the best method of removal. Make a note of all the suggestions he gives and gets a quote for the price.

Ask him about the recommended treatments to enhance the lifespan of your tree. A professional arborist will always suggest the best methods, only when he is sure of its longevity for at least a few years from now. Otherwise, he will tell you about the need to remove the tree today or in the near future before it turns into a risk factor.

Tree Surgeon – Compare

Compare the recommendations and price with at least two or three other arborist companies. Then you will know about the best methods for the trees in your garden. Then you can choose the best service provider and start with the tree surgery project with no hassles.

Tree Surgeon- Post Surgery

You need to inquire about what to do with the pruned tree branches and cut tree parts after the surgery. A professionally licensed tree surgeon will give the right suggestion that is legally valid and financially feasible for you.
Trozzo Trees & Care Ltd
9944 5 St SE
Calgary, AB T2J1L2



marriage counselling calgary

How to tell if you need marriage counseling

counselling Calgary

The first signs of the growing distance may show up when you prefer texting over talking. You spouse’s needs move from the top of the priority list to the middle or the end. The 20 minutes of dining table time may seem to stretch eternally. A few minutes of friendly conversation always ends in the conflict of ideas, goals, preferences, and tastes. Slowly but surely you may start avoiding each other, unless there is an urgent situation when a conversation becomes inevitable. Moments of physical intimacy start fading and stay only in your memory. Symptoms of irritation, resentment, restlessness, and discontentment start growing.

Hypersensitivity – Triggering Points

Analyzing the mistakes of your spouse becomes the top priority in your relationship. You wish the other person to be more understanding; loving, caring, and sacrificing (just like you). You never agree to disagree on the most trivial issues.


You always wish your wife could listen and understand you, rather than imposing her obsolete ideas onto your mind. But you may forget she is feeling the same way about you. Frequent conflicts about poor listening and understanding erupt between you. Sometimes you may try to avoid the argument by going into the silent mode. But the cold-war continues in your mind and heart. A small conflict of egos can trigger the eruptions again. You start tolerating each other than trying to understand.

Forgotten Commitments

The weekend outings and vacations seem to be too expensive and waste of precious time. You’d rather spend all the time on your projects and assignments than going out. Once in a blue-moon, you may agree for a “date”.  But you promptly forget the commitment and keep your spouse waiting at the restaurant or the cinema hall. What follows, is a nothing less than a tornado that could cause maximum damage to your relations.

Waning Attention

Wedding anniversary, Valentine’s Day, lover’s day, and the national spouse day remain only on the calendar or your personal diary. You hardly find time to greet and gift each other on many other important days. You feel your spouse has transformed into an insensitive and selfish person overnight. Unfortunately, your spouse has the same list of complaints on you.

Money Matters

You wish your spouse could be more generous when it comes to opening the wallet while spending for family needs. S/he always insists on you to pay for the pending bills. The idea of my money and your money grows stronger with each passing day of the marriage. You may feel your spouse is taking your hard work for granted.

Ultimate Reality

There could be many other triggering points of hypersensitivity that could drive your marriage to the edge force you to separate. The ultimate reality is that you have let your ego bloat too much for your spouse to tolerate. Well, it could be the other way also.

Are You Still in Love

In spite of all the conflicts, you may still love your spouse and want the relation to get better. The first step is to lower your guard (self respect, pride, ego or whatever you may call it) and talk to your spouse. Listen without bias and prejudice. Make a list of to-do tasks and prioritize your spouse’s needs and wants. Spend more quality time with each other. Take a break from your work and go out on a vacation. You may rediscover that hidden love for each other. Do it more than once until you feel enough is done.

Need for Counseling

Then you sit back and ask yourself a simple and straight question. “Do I want my  to continue and get better?” You may ask the same question to your spouse and know what s/he wants. If the answer is anything other than a “NO”, you will need marriage counseling.

Saying No may not necessarily mean a breakup. You can find many couples who start resenting each other so much that they feel separation is the only solution. But deep within their hearts they wish the other person should feel sorry and compromise.

Marriage Counseling Benefits

Marriage counseling is the psychological therapy which helps in identifying the cracks in your relations and finds long lasting solutions that work.

Marriage Counselor

The marriage counselor plays a neutral role between the two of you. The initial consultations may be done individually to make the expert understand your personality and traits. He may not ask you anything about your relations or the problems. His aim is to study both of you as individuals and note your strengths and limitations.

Seeds of Change

The marriage counselor sows the seeds of change in your mind and heart that sprout into tender saplings. Initially, you may feel offended and walking away from the sessions. It takes patience and persistence for the first few days to sit and listen to what the expert says.

The first seed of change is in the attitude. The therapist can root out the negative elements and direct the growing sprouts to the direction of light. Slowly but surely, both of you start responding to the therapy within a few days. The only criterion is an open mind and a loving heart.

Behavioral Therapy

The therapist will show you how to stop blaming each other and owning the responsibility of actions. Slowly he will teach you how to find the replicas of your own thoughts in your spouse. You may not speak the same “language” overnight. But you start responding to your spouse.

Overcome Negation

The points of negation will start reducing consistently, once you start attending the marriage counseling sessions. You agree to disagree on several aspects, and learn how to respect your spouse’s opinions. Your discussions over the dining table may not be romantic rendezvous always. But at least they cease to be the battlegrounds of ego.

Sustain Harmony

Very soon, the waves of harmony flowing between you and your spouse can be felt and experienced. The relationship gets restored to the level of normalcy. You willingness is the key that can open the toughest lock of resentment suspicion.

Living Well Counselling Services Inc.
4803 Centre Street Northwest #4,
Calgary, AB T2E 2Z6
(403) 695-7911

Best video Doorbell Camera Reviews

Best Doorbell Camera Reviews – The Best Picks For Home Use


best doorbell camera

If you are the type to go on various reviews just to find the right product, then it will be easier for you to settle with the best video doorbell device. These days it is easier to buy what you ’ll learn more here about various doorbell camera reviews.

Ring Pro 1080p


best video doorbell

The Ring Pro 1080p tackles most complaints that owners of its predecessors have addressed. It comes with an enhanced video quality at 1080p, trimmed design and better support for WiFi. The whole look of the device doesn’t look like you are installing a plastic brick on the wall. This show how the brand has listened to its consumers and put a lot of improvement on their new version.

However, this model loses a bit of its field of vision compared to the previous model. It can only capture 160-degree FOV, which the predecessor was capable of capturing 180 degrees. Most customers see this model at a better light compared to the previous model since this successor comes with a motion detection feature, which is a feature nonexistent on the predecessor.

One of the major setbacks of this new model is that it doesn’t have the option to install the battery, unlike the predecessor. This means that if you have a doorbell, you won’t be able to the hardware it with the Ring Pro 1080p. Still, it doesn’t diminish the fact that this doorbell is great for your home, with so many features offered to its users such as its high-resolution video, customizable motion zones, and trim design.

SkyBell HD Wi-Fi Video Doorbell

The brand SkyBell stands out due to its device’s ability in integrating with the equipment of Alarm.com. If you have one, you can easily add it to your already existing security system. SkyBell also provides its users live video feeds together with its on-demand feature, wherein it lets the user check in on the packages or any other porch activity at any time they wish so.

Customers have complained about this model that they have experienced difficulties with installing this device because there are not enough instructions in their setup. It took them quite a while to get SkyBell to work properly. That is the only complaint they have about the entire setup, yet once they have got it up and running, they were very happy about the functionality.

SkyBell provides similar video quality that the Ring Pro 1080p, with added 5x digital zoom as well. It even comes with a better temperature range during operations, so if you live in extremely cold or hot climates, you might want to consider SkyBell instead of Ring.

These are only of the doorbell camera reviews, but this will give you an idea of what to look for in other models if you want to look for more.



Best computers for 2017

Top  computers for 2017

Are you going to buy desktop computer in this New Year 2017? The desktop computers are very important to meet your computing needs which can’t be met by laptops, tablets and mobile devices. Are you planning to purchase the latest models of desktop computers in the year of 2017? As an Managed IT services Calgary provider we know computers inside and out trust us on these reviews

The desktop PCs have more powerful CPUs and graphic processers than other computing devices like tablets and smart phones. The latest models of the desktop computers have such powerful systems which help to accomplish your official tasks so effortlessly in no time. The prices of desktop computers are also less expensive than the laptops and everybody can purchase due to the affordable rates.

The other benefit of desktops is the larger display of monitors than laptop as the screens of desktops give the bright and prominent display which helps us to work on desktops more comfortably. By viewing the large screen of desktops, the parents may monitor the online activities of their kids. The latest versions of desktops also support Windows 10, the operating system of Microsoft to perform all computing activities so speedily.

You may choose the best quality of hardware accessories of the desktop computers like graphic cards, RAM, hard disks, processors which may help to enhance your working capacity in less time. There are wide-ranging categories of desktop processors including Intel and AMD processors, Intel Core i3 and i5 processors, Intel Atom and Celeron processors. Similarly RAMs of 4GB, 2GB and 1GB and hard disks of 500 GB, 250GB, 64GB are suitable options for your desktops in accordance with your affordability range.

The multiple tasks can be performed more efficiently when all accessories of your desktops, CPU power, memory and speed are selected with high quality. The higher speed of processor of your desktop, you will perform every task so efficiently like photo and video editing, preparing spreadsheets and writing notes in word files, creating power point slides etc. The number of cores in processor defines the working capacity of PCs with the improvement of your computing performance. The high quality of graphic cards is the perfect matches for your gaming machine and visibility range while you gaming on your PCs. Dont forget to add a Great wireless router to your list of computer needs in 2017 they have some great new Wireless routers coming out employiong mesh technolgy. This allows for multiple routers to cover your home

Here are following the best version of desktop computers for your home or office which you may buy for you:



computer support

This is the best desktop computer with dual-cre Intel Celeron, showing the processor speed range. This version of desktop has 2GB Ram, 16GB hard drive which can be extendable if you want to enhance your computer speed so faster than this one. the Asus Chromebox also provides support of Gigabit Ethernet and 802.11 wireless connectivity.

LG ChromeBase 22CV241-W 22-Inch All-in-One Cloud Desktop

Managed IT services Calgary

The LG ChromeBase 22CV241-W 22-Inch All-in-One Cloud desktop has similar specifications like desktops, manufactured by Asus including 1.4 GHz Celeron processor, RAM capacity and 16 GB hard disk. But there is another extra feature which may differentiate it from other desktops, it has four USB ports to extend any peripherals along with HDMI port which is used to plug in TV or other video streaming devices.

Looking for other things like wifi range extrenders and wifii routers try reviewimo.com

Lenovo C260 19.5-Inch All-in-One Touchscreen Desktop

calgary IT Support

The Lenovo C260 19.5-Inch All-in-One Touchscreen Desktophas high speed Intel Pentium processor which is higher than Asus and LG chrome base. The high speed of this desktop version is greater due to RAM of 4GB and 500MB hard drive. It has four USB ports along with one HDMI.

Dell XPS X8700-3130BLK Desktop

the Dell XPS X8700-3130BLK desktop possesses the main features including  Intel Core i7 processor of 3.6 GHz along with i5Chip, 16 GB of RAM, two massive terabyte (TB) hard drive, 10 USB ports with one HDMI. It is a perfect model of desktop computer for you to accelerate the working capacity speedily.


it companies in calgary

Apple iMac with Retina 5K display

Apple iMac with Retina 5K display is designed with Intel i5 processor which is a bit slower than i7 of Dell family with processor of 3.5 GHz. Apple iMac has built-in TB hard drive along with 8GB of RAM. It has no HDMI but there is support of DVI and VGA with extra two Thunderbold ports along with four USB ports. This desktop computer is the best option for official as well as personal use with extraordinary speed.

Falcon Mach V Desktop

The Falcon Mach V desktop is stylish, elegant and costly one version of the computing machines. It has all-inclusive specifications which may fascinate any lover of desktop computers who don’t compromise for the quality with high prices.The Falcon Mach V has superb accessories like processors, RAM, hard drive, motherboard chip, graphic cards and its standard features enhance its value among the professionals at the workplace. Falcon Mach V is very popular among the computer users for its durability, functionality and reliability.

Acer Chromebase 24

The Acer Chromebase 24 is known as Chrome OS desktop computer, having 24 inch of monitor’s screen. Chrome OS desktop is supported by an Intel CPU, 4GB RAM, internet connectivity device, graphic cards and massive hard drive.



Dell XPS 8900 desktop

This is the latest model of desktop computers with powerful speed for the next generations due to its 6th Gen Intel® Core™ processors, ranges up to i7 Quad Core. This version of desktop has everything which you are expecting from Dell family with fast speed, next generation processors and graphic cards. It is a super desktop with fast and exclusive speed for performing the multiple tasks.  You would really enjoy the advanced features of these desktop computers if you want to purchase this powerful machine for excellent performance.


These are the most popular versions of desktop computers which are well-known for their exclusive high-tech specifications, quality, price and compatible capacity. You may pick one of these best desktop computers for your home or office use. You go to the market for searching these desktops or you may survey the online shopping sites before taking the final decision for your favorite desktop within your affordability range and choice.



Toronto’s Trump Tower For Sale

Toronto's Trump Tower For Sale

Toronto’s Trump International Tower is searching for a new buyer after years of concurring losses which led to its quiet default on the property. The court appointed a receiver to have custody on the property if and when the owner defaults. The starting price has been set at $298 million a bit lower than $500 million which was spent to build the tower by Talon International Development Incorporation.

The Ownership

The main reason for the sale is because of the strange ownership of the tower. 94 out of 261 condominium were available in the market to investors meaning that Talon, though expected the hotel to operate at a 5-star standard, was relying on the gamble that the luxury units would sell at luxury prices. When the tower was opened in 2012, Talon’s CEO was optimistic that the tower would bring lots of investors which will enable Talon make a profit but that did not happen as expected and by 2013, the investors who had already purchased rooms were losing money due to the low rates of rooms and by 2016, half of the residential condominium which were up on sale remained unsold.

Because of this, the investors alleged that they were misled by Talon and Talon turned the tables and pointed its fingers at Trump Toronto Hotel Management accusing them of not maintaining the building’s five-star reputation. In 2016, Talon’s lawyer, Symon Zucker said that his client was not interested in the Trump brand and the Trump organization’s lawyer, Alan Gatel called Zucker’s claim as baseless saying that the building had maintained the 5-star standard.  Here is a video discussing removing the Trump brand.

Too Many Unsold Units

All the back and forth arguments did not change anything since there were still unsold units in the tower which were bleeding Talon’s money very fast. In May 2016, the developer defaulted to a construction loan of $260 million which left them hunting for a buyer. No matter which buyer will come along, Toronto Trump Hotel Management will continue managing it but it is yet to be determined if the next owner will opt out of the branding arrangement that Donald Trump had with Talon.

This has made their relationship take a turn for the worst where each is alleging the other of trying to destroy the project. The developer then asked the board to give them rights to fire Trump and get rid of the name from the tower but Trump management filled a Notice of Motion alleging that Talon wanted to terminate their contract and they threatened to sue. But since there will be someone wanting to buy the tower, there will be no need for suing.

US Government Accuses Fiat Chrysler Of Emissions Cheating

US Government Accuses Fiat Chrysler Of Emissions Cheating

Just days after Fiat rival Volkswagen pleaded guilty to criminal charges associated with rampant cheating involving vehicle emission tests, The United States government is now accusing car company Fiat Chrysler of deliberately failing to reveal software in a number of the company’s pickup trucks and SUVs with diesel engines that lets them emit more pollution than allowed by the “Clean Air Act“.

Notice of Violation

The Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) announced on Thursday that it had delivered a “notice of violation” to Fiat Chrysler that covers around 104,000 vehicles including models of the popular Jeep Grand Cherokee from 2014 to 2016 and also Ram Pickups. All sold with 3litre diesel engines.

While Fiat Chrysler hastily issued a statement denying any wrongdoing, The Environmental Protection Agency said that it will go on with its investigations to ascertain the “nature and impact” of all the eight software functions it identified during testing.

Regulators were not as yet vehemently defining the software as “defeat devices” which are in most cases intended to cheat government emissions tests. However, they said that multiple discussions with Fiat Chrysler during the last year did not produce any satisfying explanation as to why the company had not disclosed the software, which the regulators insist had caused the cars to give off less pollution during testing than during ordinary driving.

Liable for Penalties

Officials said that Fiat Chrysler could be liable for civil penalties if found guilty of violating the “Clean Air Act”. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is examining whether the emission control devices found in the above-mentioned cars are “defeat devices” which are outlawed because they switch off pollution controls.

Assistant Administrator for enforcement and compliance of the EPA Cynthia Giles said that this was a clear and serious infringement against the “Clean Air Act” and that when companies violate the law, Americans bank on the organization to come in and enforce.

Fiat Waits for the New President

Fiat Chrysler said that it was dissatisfied with the Agency’s actions and that it was looking forward to working with the Trump administration to have its case carefully looked at. The company said it spent months providing information to the Agency to expound on its emissions technology and even proposed a couple of actions like changes to the software to address the EPA’s concerns but to no avail. The company insisted that its emission control systems meet the suitable requirements.

Fiat Chrysler’s shares on the stock market fell more than 16 percent after the news was announced by the EPA on Thursday 12th January 2017.Whether Fiat Chrysler will be stamped with a similar $4.3 billion penalty like that given to Volkswagen remains to be seen, but what we can be sure of is that the folks over at the EPA have stepped up their game in a bid to make the air we breathe a lot cleaner.